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Friday, June 23, 2017

Languages of Gabon and the Congos



According to Ethnologue (↗), a total of 315 living languages are currently used for communication in GABON, the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO ("Kinshasa Congo"), and the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO ("Brazzaville Congo"). A relic of France's controversial African colonization, the official language for all three countries is French. You will find that some languages listed below are present in all three Central African nations. Figures in parentheses are estimates of the number of communicators within each country.

 Gabon's 43 prominently communicated languages include Baka, Bekwel, Benga, Bubi, Duma, Fang (350,000 communicators), French (over 1 million), Kota, Lumbu, Mahongwe, Mbangwe, Mbere, Myene, Ndumu, Ngom, Njebi, Punu (160,000), Sake, Sangu, Sira, Tchitchege, Teke-Tege (95,000), Tsaangi, Tsogo, Vili, Vumbu, Wandji, Wumbvu, and Yasa.

 The DR Congo's 210 languages include Aloro (Alur; 750,000 communicators), Asoa, Aushi, Avokaya, Bali, Baloi, Banda (Togbo-Vara), Bangala (3,500,000), Bangba, Bangi, Bangubangu, Barambu, Bemba (300,000), Bembe (255,000), Bendi, Bera, Bhele, Bila, Binji, Boko, Bolia, Boma, Bomboma, Budu, Budza (230,000), Bushoong, Buyu, Bwa (Kibua; 200,000), Bwile, Chokwe (505,000), Congo (Koongo; over 8,000,000), Congo Swahili (over 9,000,000), Ding, Dongo, Efe, Enya, Foma, French (6,100,000), Fuliiru (400,000), Furu, Gilima, Gobu, Hamba, Havu (510,000), Hema, Hemba, Holoholo, Hunde (200,000), Kakwa, Kanyok (200,000), Kaonde, Kela, Kélé, Kinyarwanda (250,000), Kituba (Kikongo; 5,000,000), Komo (400,000), Kusu, Kwese, Lalia, Lega-Mwenga, Lega-Shabunda (400,000), Lele, Lendu (750,000), Lengola, Lese, Libinza, Ligenza, Lika, Lingala (2,050,000), Lobala, Logo (225,000), Lombi, Lombo, Luba-Kasi (Tshiluba; 7,000,000), Luba-Katanga (Kiluba; 1,500,000), Lugbara (850,000), Luna, Lusengo, Lwalu, Mabaale, Mamvu, Mangbetu (620,000), Mayekyeka, Mayogo, Mba, Mbala (230,000), Mbandja (355,000), Mbo, Mbole, Mituku, Mongo-Nkundu (400,000), Mono, Mpuono, Nande (910,000), Ndaka, Ndo, Ndobo, Ngando (220,000), Ngbaka (over 1,000,000), Ngbaka Ma’bo (Bouaka), Northern Ngbandi (250,000), Southern Ngbandi, Ngbundu, Ngelima, Ngiti, Ngombe, Ntomba, Nyali, Nyanga, Nyanga-li (Linyanga-le), Nzakara, Omi, Pagibete, Pambia, Phende (420,000), Poke, Ruunde, Sakata, Salampasu, Sanga (435,000), San Salvador Kongo (540,000), Seba, Sengele, Shi (655,000), Sonde, Songe (1,000,000), Songo, Songomeno, Suku, Taabwa (270,000), Tagbu, Talinga-Bwisi, Teke-Ibali, Tembo, Tetela (750,000), Tiene, Wongo, Yaka (700,000), Yakoma, Yamongeri, Yansi, Yela, Yombe (670,000), Zande (730,000), and Zimba.

 Finally, the Republic of the Congo's 62 languages include Aka, Akwa, Beembe (100,000 communicators), Bekwel, Bobangi, Bomitaba, Bomwali, Bongili, Doondo, Fang, French (over 2,500,000), Kako, Kituba (1,490,000), Koongo, Kota, Kunyi (117,000), Laari (135,000), Likuba, Likwala, Lingala (182,000), Mbaka (Ngbaka Ma'bo; 135,000), Mbandja, Mbere (90,000), Mboko, Monzombo, Mpyemo (Bimu), Ngungwel, Njebi, Ombamba, Pomo (Pol), Soundi (Suundi; 185,000), Teke-Eboo, Teke-Fuumu, Teke-Ibali, Teke-Kukuya, Teke-Tege, Teke-Tsaayi (100,000), Teke-Tyee, Tsaangi, Vili, Wumbvu, Yaka, and Yombe.

Thursday, June 22, 2017

CANCELLED: AL, AR, LA, and MS Tornado Watch (June 22nd)




For the U.S. states of Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, there is a Tornado Watch until 10 PM Central Time today (June 22nd). There are currently a couple of Tornado Warnings issued in Georgia, so I recommend that the National Weather Service's Tornado Watch boundary is extended into northwestern Georgia and to the northern state lines of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi.

Ethanol Could Increase Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions


Ethanol and similar biofuels are known for their efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. However, could these benefits be outweighed by greenhouse-gas effects associated with necessary land-use changes? Thousands of acres of farms in the UNITED STATES were initially used for food production but are now used to harvest crops for ethanol; what effect does this have on the environment? According to Searchinger et al. (2008), diverting harvested crops to ethanol production means that additional land (including forests, grasslands, etc.) has to be converted into farmland to maintain the capacity of crops-for-food production. This results in increased greenhouse gas emissions at rates which may not justify the environmental benefits of ethanol.

"[Most major studies] have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products" (Searchinger et al. 2008, 1238).

Searchinger et al.'s report was published in the Science magazine, published by the non-profit American Association for the Advancement of Science. The full research paper is embedded in the Microsoft OneDrive frame below.

 Citing this Work (MLA Formatting) 
Searchinger, Timothy, Ralph Heimlich, R. A. Houghton, Fengxia Dong, Amani Elobeid, Jacinto Fabiosa, Simla Tokgoz, Dermot Hayes, and Tun-Hsiang Yu. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change." Science 319.5867 (2008): 1238-240. Web.



DR Congo Exports


The following items are major exports of the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: bananas and plantains, (and other tropical fruit), cassava, cement, clothing and textiles, cobalt, cocoa, coffee, coltan (niobium and tantalum), corn (maize), diamonds and other gemstones, footwear, gold, lumber and timber, palm oil, peanuts, petroleum, plastic, processed foods and beverages, quinine, root crops, rubber, silver, sugarcane, tea, and zinc. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include China (top importer), Zambia, South Korea, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Namibia, Germany, the United Arab Emirates, Spain, India, Finland, Malaysia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Indonesia, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Taiwan, Morocco, and the United States.

Comoros Exports


The following items are major exports of COMOROS in the Indian Ocean: bananas, cassava, cloves, coconuts and coconut oil, copra, seafood, vanilla, and ylang-ylang perfume essences. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include France (top importer), Germany, India, Switzerland, Pakistan, Madagascar, Singapore, the Netherlands, the United States, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, South Korea, Taiwan, Myanmar, Egypt, Lebanon, Gambia, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago.

Colombia Exports


The following items are major exports of COLOMBIA: bananas, chemicals, clothing and textiles, coal, cocoa beans, coffee, copper, corn (maize), cut flowers, emeralds and other gemstones, footwear, gold, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, processed food, seafood (particularly shrimp), and sugarcane. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include the United States (top importer), Panama, the Netherlands, Spain, Ecuador, China, Peru, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, Chile, Venezuela, South Korea, Germany, Belgium, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, and Switzerland.

China Exports


The following items are major exports of CHINA: apples, antimony, automobiles, cheap consumer goods, chemicals, citrus fruit (clementines, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarin oranges), clothing and textiles, cotton, data processing equipment, electronics, fertilizer, footwear, grain, iron ore, lead, machinery, magnetite, meat, mercury, natural gas, oilseed, petroleum, potatoes, processed food, rare earth elements, rice, steel, seafood, tchotchkes and trinkets, tea, telephones, and zinc. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include the United States (top importer), Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands, Germany, Vietnam, India, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Russia, Mexico, Indonesia, Italy, the Philippines, and Canada.

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Chile Exports


The following items are major exports of CHILE: apples, avocados, bananas, blueberries, chemicals, copper, cranberries, fertilizer, fish, fruit juice, garlic, gold, grapes and raisins, iron and steel, kiwifruit, lithium, lumber, onions, oranges, paper and wood pulp, peaches, pears, plums, potatoes, processed food, textiles, transportation equipment, and wine. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include China (top importer), the United States, Japan, South Korea, Brazil, India, Peru, Bolivia, the Netherlands, Taiwan, Canada, Spain, Mexico, Germany, Argentina, Bulgaria, Italy, Colombia, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland.

Chad Exports


The following items are major exports of CHAD: cattle, cotton, gold, gravel and sand, gum arabic, kaolin, limestone, millet, natron, peanuts, petroleum, potatoes, rice, and sorghum. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include China (top importer), India, the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, Turkey, Vietnam, Pakistan, Portugal, Italy, France, Indonesia, Germany, Ireland, Central African Republic, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, Egypt, and Palestine.

Central African Republic Exports


The following items are major exports of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: bananas, cassava, coffee, corn (maize), cotton, diamonds, millet, small amount of gold, small amount of oil, timber, and yams. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include Germany (top importer), France, Chile, Chad, Cameroon, China, Vietnam, Finland, Iceland, Gabon, Italy, Canada, the United Arab Emirates, and Burundi.

Canada Exports


The following items are major exports of CANADA: aircraft, aluminum, automobiles and parts, chemicals, electricity to the United States, fertilizer, fish, grain, industrial machinery, lumber and timber, minerals, natural gas, oilseed (particularly canola and sunflower), petroleum, plastic, telecommunications equipment, wood pulp. Cranberries, apples, cherries, grapes, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, and onions are prominent fruits and vegetables exported abroad — particularly to the United States. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include the United States (top importer), China, the United Kingdom, Japan, Mexico, France, Germany, South Korea, India, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Taiwan, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Norway, Hong Kong, Australia, Spain, and Sweden.

Cameroon Exports


The following items are major exports of CAMEROON: aluminum, bauxite, iron ore, lumber, cassava, cocoa beans, coffee, cotton crude oil and petroleum products, grain, oilseed, rubber, and textiles. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include Portugal (top importer), South Africa, Spain, Italy, France, Chad, China, Vietnam, the Netherlands, Belgium, Bangladesh, Malaysia, the United States, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, the United Kingdom, Netherlands Antilles, and Equatorial Guinea.

Cambodia Exports


The following items are major exports of CAMBODIA: clothing and textiles, footwear, fish, gemstones, iron ore, petroleum (at an increasing rate compared to previous years), rice, rubber, timber and wood products, and tobacco. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include the United States (top importer), Japan, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, China, Belgium, France, Spain, Thailand, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Italy, Vietnam, South Korea, Malaysia, Australia, Denmark, the United Arab Emirates, and Poland.

Cabo Verde Exports


The following items are major exports of CABO VERDE (Cape Verde): bananas, basalt, corn (maize), beans, clay, coffee, fish, footwear, fuel, gypsum, industrial products, kaolin, limestone, peanuts, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, textiles, and transportation equipment. According to the International Monetary Fund (data.imf.org), countries and territories buying and importing most of those exports (February 2017 statistics) include Portugal (top importer), Spain, Morocco, the Netherlands, Italy, the United Kingdom, Togo, El Salvador, Turkey, the United States, Malaysia, Moldova, Sierra Leone, Gibraltar, Guinea, Vietnam, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Panama, and Guyana.

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Geography Quiz — June 20th, 2017


National Geographic Bee Logo

GeoFact of the Day's GeoBee Quiz posts are essentially archived and therefore always available (↗), even if National Geographic removed questions from the website. Some questions may be fairly easy, especially for adults — but you never know when you'll encounter a toughie! Try this latest geography quiz; correctly answering at least seven out of ten questions means you surely are a geography whiz! Many more quiz questions are found on the National Geographic Geo Bee Quiz (↗) website.

1)      The Potala was the home of the Dalai Lama until he fled into exile in 1959. The Potala overlooks what Himalayan city?
A — Lhasa
B — Thimphu
C — Kathmandu

2)      In July 1998, RUSSIA planned to bury the remains of Nicholas II (the last czar/tsar) and his family in the former imperial capital city. What city of over 4.6 million people is this?
A — Vladivostok
B — Saint Petersburg
C — Moscow

3)      Which of these South American countries shares a border with more countries than the other two choices?
A — URUGUAY
B — BOLIVIA
C — CHILE

4)      Which European country has a larger population?
A — SERBIA
B — MOLDOVA
C — SLOVENIA
D — GERMANY

5)      On which continent would you find the longest mountain system above sea level and the southernmost city in the world?
A — South America
B — Africa
C — Asia

6)      Which country has a smaller population today than it had in the 1840s?
A — SWITZERLAND
B — MEXICO
C — IRELAND

7)      The Sea of Azov — which borders RUSSIA and UKRAINE — is an inlet of which larger inland sea?
A — Red Sea
B — Black Sea
C — Aral Sea

8)      In April 1998, MALAYSIA deported illegal-immigrant workers from INDONESIA, forcing them to leave from a port on the Malay Peninsula's western coast. This port straddles what strait?
A — Strait of Malacca
B — Singapore Strait
C — Makassar Strait

9)      Meteorology: What term is used to describe the powerful downdrafts in thunderstorms?
A — anticyclones
B — isobars
C — microbursts

10)      The development of dictionaries in official languages such as Ndebele, Xhosa, and Tswana is taking place in which country?
A — MALAWI
B — SOUTH AFRICA
C — MOROCCO


















ANSWERS

Question 1:
A . . . . . Lhasa

Question 2:
B . . . . . St. Petersburg

Question 3:
B . . . . . Bolivia

Question 4:
D . . . . . Germany

Question 5:
A . . . . . South America

Question 6:
C . . . . . Ireland

Question 7:
B . . . . . Black Sea

Question 8:
A . . . . . Strait of Malacca

Question 9:
C . . . . . microbursts

Question 10:
B . . . . . South Africa

Monday, June 19, 2017

CANCELLED: Harrisburg, PA Tornado Warning




1:50 PM Eastern Time — June 19th, 2017

There is a TORNADO WARNING for Cumberland, Dauphin, Lancaster, Lebanon, and York counties in southeastern Pennsylvania because the National Weather Service detected rotation within the storm. This does not necessarily mean there is a tornado, however. The warning area includes the southeastern sections of Harrisburg. Eastward cities in the path of this storm and warning include Elizabethtown, Hershey, and Lebanon. This warning may or may not end at 2:15 PM Eastern Time.

Map of Zambia Published


Another new map of another African country is now posted on GeoFact of the Day. Located approximately 4,000 kilometers southeast of BURKINA FASO, the Republic of ZAMBIA is the topic of a comprehensively updated post, which now includes a map identifying neighboring countries as well as featuring major communities, lakes, rivers, and waterfalls. See the map on my Zambia post (↗)!

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